Iris Patterns dictionary




  • English: iridology
  • German: Augendiagnose, Iridodiagnose
  • French: Iridologie
  • Spanish, Italian, Portuguase: Iridologia
  • Dutch: Iriscopie,  Irisdiagnostiek
  • Russian: иридология
  • Japanese: 虹彩



Acetylcholine. Neurotransmitter inducing pupil constriction.

Cholesterol Ring (Sodium Ring, Gerontoxon) whitish band partially or wholly encircling the periphery of the iris.

Ciliary body. The main two iris’ sectors are the collarette (central area corresponding  to one third of the iris) and the ciliary body. The ciliary body is the area surrounding the collarette that corresponds to the remaining two thirds of the iris. In order to facilitate the location and description of iris’s damages, the ciliary body is usually divided into four areas: superior, inferior, right lateral and left lateral. The medial lateral areas are also called nasal, while the outer ones are also called temporal. Oftentimes, for a more precise marking, the hour subdivision is used, as if the iris were a clock face divided into 12 sectors: therefore a sign found in the center of the superior area will be at 12:00 o’clock and so on.

Circular map. The circular subdivision divides the iris into six concentric circles which coincide with as many areas and functions of the human body.

Collarette. First portion of the iris around the pupil, it is a circular band delimited by an uneven edge. It corresponds to about a third of the iris area.

Constitution –Ematogenic (dark irises). Lymphatic (clear irises). Biliar (mixed irises).

Cramp Rings – (nerve rings) concentric depigmenteted furrows.

Daisy-like iris. The variant called daisy-like iris belongs to the connectival morphology. It’s characterized by giant lacunae like the petals of a flower.

Dark Radials.  Radial furrows of various lengths and depths radiating outward from the Pupil Border, or the Wreath.

Defect Marking.  Dark spots showing absence of texture.

Depigmentation. Loss of color intensity.

Diatheses (time’s damages). Changes caused by aging, diseases, abuses, intoxications, hereditary diseases. Five main variants (exudative, uric, dyscratic, lipemic, allergic).

Founders of Modern Iridology. Ignaz Von Peczely (1826-1911). Recognized founder of modern Iridology. Emil Schlegel. First physician who acknowledged the scientific reliability of Peczely work and published a re-elaboration of the original map following Peczeley’s fundamental contributions.

Glandular Zone. Iris ring along the boundary of collarette.

Heterochromia – Wide areas of different color in respect to the iris basic pigmentation. Three heterochromias: Complete, Central., Sectorial.

IIPA  International Iridology Practitioners Association, USA,

Inner Pupillary Border. The pupil’s border is constituted by the final offshoots of the posterior ocular chamber’s coating. It is a dark-colored granular tissue.

Iridology chart. In decades following the publication of Peczely and Schlegel maps, Nils Liljequist (1851-1936), realized that quinine, drug commonly prescript at that time, could often saturate the iris with toxic pigments and that bone fractures were often cause of changes in the iris. Liljequist published his first works rich in maps and tables in 1893. Since then, many different iris maps have been published and many iridologic school of thought are born. The German iridologic school’s maps are widely shared (W. Hauser, J. Karl, R. Stolz ” Die praktischeIrisdiagnostik ” Koln-Heimsheim, 1986; “Informatonen aus Struktur und Farbe” Felke Institut Heimsheim Germany, 2001). However, there are numerous other maps which are considered authoritative, the most used ones being the maps of: J. Deck, S. J. Rizzi, L. Berdonces, B. Jensen: (J. Deck “Differenzierung der iriszeichen” Karlruhe, 1965; S. Rizzi “Iridology, the future diagnostic method” I. Laches 1983; J. L. Berdonces “Basic Manual of iridology” Integral Ediciones, Oasis, Barcelona 1990; B. Jensen “Iridology” Escondido 1982). And recently, it is also worth mentioning the chart of E. Ratti and J. Karl (“Iridologie Bildatlas mit Erlauterung” Autonome Provinz Bozen Sudtirol, 1011) and the following web sites:  ; .

Iridology map. The connections and interactions between internal organs and body’s surface are utilized in several fields of health care: Traditional Chinese Acupuncture, Reflexology, Kinesiology … The founder of modern iridology, hungarian physician I. Pekzely (1826-1911), realized that this approach could also be applied to the iris surface. Peczely published his map of human internal organs’ projection on iris in 1886.

Puerari's iris map

F. Puerari’s simplified iris chart

Lacuna. Circular or lozenge radial areas of texture’s rarefaction delimited by fibers of greater dimensions.

Miosis. The pupil’s dimensions depend on the intensity of light. Dilation occurs when light is scanty. Constriction occurs when light is intense. Pupil constriction is called miosis. Iris analysis is performed using medium light intensities such as not to provoke miosis or mydriasis but to obtain feedback on usual dilation.

Morphology. Five main variants have been identified. 1) Compact with arcs and rays (spasmodic iris) 2) Thinned (connectival iris) 3) Localized thinning (glandular iris) 4) Stretched fibers (neurogenic iris) 5) Wavy fibers (tubercular iris).

Mydriasis. The pupil’s dimensions depend on the intensity of light. Dilation occurs when light is scanty. Constriction occurs when light is intense. Dilation is called mydriasis.

Nerve ring. Autonomic Nerve wreath. Uneven edge circumscribing the collarette. It is also called autonomic nerve wreath or neurovegetative ring.

Noradrenaline. Neurotransmitter inducing pupil dilation.

Organs’ projections. The organs’ projections on the two irises respect the body’s symmetry. They develop into two well distinct areas: the collarette, iris’ central area, corresponding to about one third of the iris; and the ciliary body, corresponding to the iris’ peripheral two thirds. The digestive tube’s projections are gathered in the collarette, for this reason the collarette is also called intestine’s area. All other organs’ projections are gathered in the ciliary body. In addition to the collarette and the ciliary body there are two structures which supply useful information: the  pupillary border, and the autonomic nerve edge which circumscribe the collarrette. The pupillary border collects the vertebral spine’s projections. The autonomic nerve edge, together with the pupil’s dilation is an index of neurovegetative activity.

Pigments . Spots and patches of different color in respect to the basic iris pigmentation.

Screen and printing. Since the iris examination of the two eyes is done frontally, the right iris is the one that will appear on the left of a screen or printed page and the left iris will appear on the right.

Sectorial map. The eight sectors of the sectorial subdivision coincide with the major apparatuses.

Stroma. Body and texture of the iris. It can appear compact or thinned-out with fibers that can be more or less thick. According to their diameter fibers are described – from thinner to thicker- as: silk, linen or hemp-like.

Tofi. Series of whitish or pale yellowish dots or patches in or near the border line of ciliary body.

Transversal. Fibers lying in directions different from the normal radial iris pattern.

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